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Unit  1 Cells and Heredity
Chapter 4 Genetics: The Science of Heredity
   


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Created  7/8/2003

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Previous: Cell Processes and Energy          Next: Modern Genetics

Teacher Resources         Student Extra Credit

 

4-1 Mendel's Work
Mendel's Experiments
Dominant and Recessive Alleles

4-2 Probability and Heredity
Principles of Probability
Probability and Genetics: Punnett Squares
Phenotypes and Genotypes
Codominance

4-3 The Cell and Inheritance
Chromosomes and Inheritance
Meiosis
A Lineup of Genes

4-4 The DNA Connection
The Genetic Code
How Cells Make Protein
Mutations

 

 

Day 1
Topic 4-1 Mendel's Experiments
Objectives/ I can...
Define gamete.
Describe the type of cell division called meiosis.
Understand that some traits are dominant and others are recessive.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.

Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.

Classwork-Homework
PEAS IN A POD
Peas in a Pod: Cracking the Code Part 1/3  9:51
Peas in a Pod: Cracking the Code Part 2/3  10:06
Peas in a Pod: Cracking the Code Part 3/3  9:22

readme.gif (802 bytes) Prentice Hall 110-115  

Pencil.gif (434 bytes) RSG 4-1 Mendel's Work
TEC
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) The Test Cross Science Explorer page 249
Resources
Mendel: From Garden to the Genome  30:23
Gregor Mendel and Genetics  7:00
Mendel's Peas  3:26 music
Mendel Rap  1:27
The Magic of Genetics  3:12  narration
Note02.gif (247 bytes) Mendel's Pea Plant Exp. #1

Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Interactive Pea Experiment 
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Pea Experiment Worksheet
1. yellow; 2. yellow or green; 3. none; 4. both; 5. smooth; 6. smooth, yellow; 7. recessive; 8. dominant.
filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) Other Patterns of Inheritance     Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Notes

 

 

Day 2
Topic 4-1   Genetics: The Science of Heredity  
Objectives/ I can...
Learn a number of easily observable genetic traits.
Compare traits they have with others in the class.
Learn some traits are common, others are not.
Construct and read a data table and bar graph.
Explain how traits are passed from parent to offspring.
Explain why offspring have some of the traits of their parents but not all.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.

Common Core MS-LS3-1
Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.

Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes)Vocabulary
Trait:
characteristic
Inherited Trait: trait that is passed from parents to their offspring
Heredity:
passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics:
study of heredity 

Pencil.gif (1165 bytes)Inventory of My Traits

Note02.gif (247 bytes) Use colored pictures of traits page 2

1. Go over traits.
2. Kids fill out individual chart with group
3. Record results on board
4. Record on student class chart

TEC
Resources
Earth.gif (6650 bytes) Traits Activity Index        Earth.gif (6650 bytes)Print and Go Index

PTC Paper Strips.
Carolina RG-17-4010. Cost per 100 strips: $3.60. (800-334-5551)
Flinn Scientific AP7989. Cost per 100 strips: $1.02. (800-452-1261).
Ward's 14W4105. Cost per 100 strips: $1.05. (800-962-2660).

 

Day 3
Topic  Inventory of My Traits
Objectives/ I can...
Compare traits they have with others in the class.
Learn some traits are common, others are not.
Construct and read a data table and bar graph.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Gene Scene   Use this Blank Gene Wheel and answer questions about your traits.
Finger Hair. Officially known as Mid-digital Finger Hair. Consider your fingers to have 3 segments, top, middle, and bottom. If hair is present on the middle segment of any finger, even just one hair, you have mid-digital hair. Do not score the bottom segment of your fingers for hair, just the middle segment. Look closely, as is can be difficult to score. Hair may be present on only one finger or very fair, especially in children.

The last trait.....B/bb is for crooked/straight little finger. Difficuly to evaluate.
Change to...freckles, dimples, or thumb on top
 

Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Tour of the Basics Do last section Traits STOP at Incomplete Dominance

TEC
Resources
filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) Traits     Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Notes

Computer.bmp (3254 bytes) Survival of the Sneakiest  Cricket Inherited Traits

 

 

Day 4
Topic Sponge Bob Genetics
Objectives/ I can...
Describe how genes are distributed in sexual reproduction.
Design a model to determine genotype and phenotype.
Compare observable and genetic traits to the traits of classmates and family members.
Use Punnett squares.
Use ratios and probability to describe patterns of heredity.
Analyze experimental data to find probabilities.
State Goals
12.A.2b 
Categorize features as either inherited or learned.
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
12.A.3b  Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes)  Vocabulary
Genotype
  the two letters that make up a trait  (TT Tt tt)
Phenotype what the letters stand for (tall short)
Homozygous: a trait made up of the same letter said to be purebred (TT tt)
Heterozygous:a trait made up of a dominant and recessive gene (Tt)
Dominant Gene:
gene whose trait always shows itself
Recessive Gene:
gene of a trait that is hidden when the dominant gene is present 

Copy Vocabulary on paper

Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Tour of the Basics
Heredity  2:05
Genetics 101 Part 1: What are Genes  4:25
Genetics 101 Part 2: What are SNPS?  1:53
Genetics Part 3: Where Do My Genes Come From?  4:14
Genetics Part 4: Phenotypes  2:04
A Brown-Eyed Girl  7:08   Neat song about genetics with words sang to  Van Morrison' song

Lecture.gif - 2227 Bytes Genetics With Sponge Bob  
             Do #1-5 together
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes  #6-8 on own

TEC
Resources

 

Day 5
Topic 4-2 Punnett Squares
Objectives/ I can...
Use Punnett Squares.
Determine probability.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes) Vocabulary
Punnett Square:
chart that shows possible gene combinations.

Lecture.gif - 2227 Bytes Punnett Squares

 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes 
Genetics With Sponge Bob 2
         Examples
          1A
          2A
          3A 

TEC
Resources

 

Day 6
Topic  Sponge Bob Genetics
Objectives/ I can...
Identify phenotypes.
Identify genotypes.
Create a Punnett square to determine traits.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
braininjar.gif - 1615 Bytes
Sponge Bob Genetics Quiz

 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Genetics of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
TEC
Resources

 

Day 7
Topic 4-2 Codominance
Objectives/ I can...
Use Punnett Squares.
Determine genotypes and phenotypes.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes) Vocabulary
Incomplete Dominance:
pattern of inheritance in which alleles from both parents are blended
Codominance: pattern of inheritance in which both alleles of a gene are expressed

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance    Smart Board lesson; Show first example

Lecture.gif - 2227 Bytes Sponge Bob Incomplete Dominance  #1-4 together
 
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes  #5-8
TEC
Resources
star.gif - 2279 BytesGenetics Challenge
 star.gif - 2279 BytesWorld of Genetics
readme.gif - 802 Bytes
 Old Prentice Hall p. 691 Incomplete Dominance

 

Day 8
Topic  4-2 Sponge Bob Genetics
Objectives/ I can...
Determine genotypes and phenotypes.
Create a Punnett square to determine traits.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Bikini Bottom Dihybrid Practice
TEC
Resources

 

Day 9
Topic 4-3 Chromosomes      
Objectives/ I can...
Describe how genes and chromosomes are involved in heredity.
Define gamete.
Describe the type of cell division called meiosis.
State Goals
12.A.3b 
Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents. 
Common Core MS-LS3-1
Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes) Vocabulary
Karotype:
organized display of an organisms chromosomes 
Centromere:
point of a chromosome where two parts meet
Genes:
parts of a chromosome that control inherited traits
Allele:
one of two or more forms of a particular gene

Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes) Label Parts of Chromosome.   camera.GIF (174 bytes)  GF 3-11 p.70
Draw chromosome on board for kids to copy .
               Chromatids
               Centromere
               Chromatin fiber
               DNA
               Protein

Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes)  Vocabulary
Sperm Cell:
male reproductive cell
Egg Cell:
female reproductive cell
Gamete:
reproductive cell
Meiosis:
type of cell division that produces gametes

Genetics 101 Part 1: What are Genes  4:25
Genetics 101 Part 2: What are SNPS?  1:53
Genetics Part 3: Where Do My Genes Come From?  4:14
Evolution and Genetics 5:52

 

 Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Welcome to the Morgan Genetics Tutorial

 Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Tour of the Basics

readme.gif (802 bytes) Prentice Hall 126-13

Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Science Explorer pages 265-266 # 1-9

TEC
Resources
Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Phases of Meiosis

filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) Genes and Alleles    Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Notes
filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) Reproduction and Meiosis     Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Student Notes

 

Day 10
Topic  Mitosis
Objectives/ I can...
Illustrate the five phases of mitosis.
State Goals
12.A.3b  Compare characteristics of organisms produced from a single parent with those of organisms produced by two parents.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Onion Cell Meitosis


Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes Mitosis Cookie Activity
Use cookies and sprinkles to display the phases of mitosis.
TEC
Resources
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Mitosis Cell Cycle

 

Day 11
Topic  4-4 Mutations
Objectives/ I can...
Describe the molecular makeup of DNA.
Explain the role of DNA in living organisms.
Explain how the living conditions of an organism affect the way it develops
State Goal
12.A.5b  Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
Common Core MS-LS3-2
Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.gif (3590 bytes) Vocabulary
DNA:
large molecule contained in chromosome
Replication:
process by which DNA is duplicated
Protein Synthesis:
process by which proteins are made 
RNA:
molecule used in the marking of proteins
Mutation:
change in a gene
Mutagens: factors that increase mutations
Carcinogens: mutagens known to cause cancer

DNA Mutations  1:30
3-Armed Baby  :47
Mutations  3:15
Conjoined Twins  5:02
Juliane Wetmore  3:46
Radiation Causes Mutations  2:43 

Computer.gif (1114 bytes)  DNA From the Beginning 

readme.gif (802 bytes) Prentice Hall 131-137

Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Science Explorer pages 271-274  # 1-17

TEC
Resources
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes DNA - The Double Helix  A coloring and question activity.

Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Monstrous Mutations
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) DNA: Expanding Forensic Science  Extract DNA from onion skin

filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) DNA     Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Notes

filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) DNA Replication     Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Notes

filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) Mistakes Happen     Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Notes

filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes) DNA and Technology     Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Notes


Previous: Cell Processes and Energy          Next: Modern Genetics

 

Teacher Resources

Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Assignments    crayon0a.gif (328 bytes) Art Activity    Magnify0b.gif - 341 BytesLab      BookOpen.bmp (16686 bytes) Lesson Plan      braininjar.gif (1615 bytes)Tests     IconMap.bmp (3402 bytes) Maps     Note02.gif (247 bytes) Resources     Earth.gif (6650 bytes) Web Sites    
SchoolBus5.bmp (6174 bytes) Field Trips      Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Computer     bookpages.gif (1592 bytes) Book    Dice.bmp (3974 bytes) Games    star.gif (2279 bytes)Extra Credit     filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes)PPT

CHROMOSOMES & DNA
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Decoding DNA and DNA Jewelry Lesson  Using the directions for this hands-on activity/lab helps students construct a model of DNA to learn DNA structure and decode it to better understand protein synthesis. They also have an actual badge of their DNA literacy to wear or use.
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes DNA - The Double Helix  A coloring and question activity.
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Double Helix: Build Your Own DNA Model
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes How DNA Controls the Workings of the Cell
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Making a Model of DNA
 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) DNA: Expanding Forensic Science  Extract DNA from onion skin
 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Have Your DNA and Eat it Too  Students build an edible model of DNA from Licorice, Colored Marshmallows, and toothpicks.
 Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Tour of the Basics WebQuest
 crayon0a.gif - 328 Bytes DNA Coloring Sheets   College Coloring Book Pages
 cuttingscissors.gif - 1472 Bytes DNA MODEL
 cuttingscissors.gif - 1472 Bytes  DNA Modeling
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Build a DNA Model
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Cell Cycle
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes DNA Animation
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes DNA From the Beginning   Cool site to show kids using computer projector.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes DNA: The Double Helix Game  In this game you can make copies of DNA molecules and find out which organism the genetic material belongs to!
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Jurrasic Park a Possibilty
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Understanding Genetics
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes What is DNA? Neat tour
GENETICS
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Baby Lab  Create a baby and answer the questions
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Bunny Babies Students use their knowledge of how traits are inherited to determine the traits for Easter Egg Bunnies.
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes DNA Chain Letter
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Genetics of Parenthood   Flip coins to determine what the person looks like.
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Genetics Practice Problems
 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Genetics Practice Problems: Simple Worksheet
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Genetics With a Smile  and Smiley Face Evaluation
 Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Teaching Medelian Genetics by Writing
 Sponge Bob Genetics 5-Day Mini Unit!!  Voted "Favorite Activity" by kids every year.
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Genetics With Sponge Bob 
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Genetics With Sponge Bob 2 
braininjar.gif (1615 bytes) Sponge Bob Genetics Quiz  
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Sponge Bob Incomplete Dominance
Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Genetics Challenge
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Bikini Bottom Dihybrid Practice
star.gif (2279 bytes) World of Genetics Word search
 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) An Inventory of my Traits
 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Designer Genes In a Designer World
 Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes Genetics With STACOPS  Using their knowledge of genetics and heredity, students will participate in activities involving the chromosomes of a created animal called a STACOP. Based on the genetic information of a "mated" pair of STACOPs, students will make inferences about the genetic combinations the STACOPs' offspring might inherit.
  Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes  Inherited Traits  Make a chart and collect trait information with a partner.
 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes)   Plastic Egg Genetics
 Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes Toothpick Fish  You will learn about the relationships between many different aspects of fish life: genes, traits, variation, survival, and reproduction. The activity here is a simulation, but it models the way fish and other organisms live in nature.
 crayon0a.gif (328 bytes) Arthropod Genetics  Construct imaginary arthropods by selecting dominant and recessive traits with genotypes and phenotypes.  Construct Punnett Squares to determine traits of offspring.
 Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Tour of the Basics   Learn Genetics
 Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Welcome to the Morgan Genetics Tutorial
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes From Genes to Jeans  96 page activity book. 1. Just Like Me      2. Let’s Get Square
3. Bird Land   4. Design Yer Genes     5. Snappy Products, Inc.
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Where Did You Get Those Genes?  Trace the lineage of horses and tomatoes.
  Earth.gif (6650 bytes) Brain Pop Genes
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Drag and Drop Genetics Investigate allelic inheritance in this interactive site. The Punnett Squares questions revolve around monohybrids, blood groupings, sex-linkage traits and pedigrees. Questions involving percentages of trait inheritance are also included.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Gene Machine  Enter your parents and your physical traits and see your genes.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Genetics Practice Problems  You may type in your own answers, then check to see if you were right. If you’re totally stumped, you can tell the computer to show you the answer to a particular question.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Genetic Science Learning Center
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Chromosome Viewer  Click on a chromosome to see traits and disorders associated with that chromosome.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Java Genetics  Interactive problem set on Mendelian genetics.
HEREDITY
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Giant Panda Heredity Exercise
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Fun Bugs     Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Fun Bug Worksheet
MENDEL
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Mendel: Experiment #1  Round and wrinkled seeds.
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Mendel's Laws
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Gregor Mendel  Access excellence
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Inheriting Eye Color
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Interactive Pea Experiment  Breed your own hybrid pea plants.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Mendel's Genetic Laws
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes MendelWeb  MendelWeb is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in the origins of classical genetics, introductory data analysis, elementary plant science, and the history and literature of science.
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes The Story of Mendel
MEIOSIS
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Meiosis Movie
PROBABILITY
 Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes Probability Lab
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes Probability of Inheritance  One of the easiest ways to calculate the mathematical probability of inheriting a specific trait was invented by an early 20th century English geneticist named Reginald Punnett.
PUNNETT SQUARES
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes  Genetics of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes How Well Does a Punnett Square Predict the Actual Ratios?  In this lab you will make predictions using Punnett Squares, you will then use pennies (or chips) to simulate the crosses.  Then compare the Actual Ratios with the Predicted Ratios.
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Outrageous Offspring
 Pencil.gif - 434 Bytes Punnett Square Practice Problems
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Fun With Punnett Squares




Student Extra Credit

 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Extra Credit star.gif - 2279 Bytes

 star.gif (2279 bytes) Gene Scene   Use this Blank Gene Wheel and answer questions about your traits.  Bring it in.
 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Genetic Phenotypes of Super Heroes   Search the Internet for information on a Marvel Comic Super Hero of your choice. Develop a list of 20 to 25 physical traits (phenotype) that your character has which you can identify by physically looking at the character.
 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Oompah Loompa Genetics  Make the Punnett Squares and answer the questions about Oompahs and Loompas.
 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Practicing with Punnett Squares  For each problem, be sure to do the work for each step and don't forget the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring.
 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Predict the Phenotype   Work the Punnett Square for the two hybrid plants.

         Previous: Cell Processes and Energy         Next: Modern Genetics