ExpertIconOcean.bmp (82182 bytes) Be an Expert: Oceanography

1. Name four branches of oceanography.    5 Points


2. Describe at least five reasons why it is important for people to learn about the oceans.     5 Points

3. Ocean Vocabulary    5 Points
tide
salinity
abyss
photosynthesis
sediment
estuary
plankton
lagoon
density
fathom
Gulf Stream
tsumami
horse latitudes
phytoplankton
bloom
deep sea vent
crustacean
coral
current

4. Bodies of Water: Oceans, Seas, Gulfs and Bays      10 Points
Locate and label a map of the world's oceans and seas.
Use Bodies of Water activity found at:
http://www.smithlifescience.com/WorldBodiesWater.htm

1. Pacific Ocean 8. Bering Sea 15. Persian Gulf 22. Adriatic Sea
2. Atlantic Ocean 9. Gulf of Mexico 16. Gulf of Oman 23. Coral Sea
3. Indian Ocean 10. Sea of Okhotsk 17. Black Sea 24. Bay of Bengal
4. Arctic Ocean 11. East China Sea 18. North Sea 25. Arabian Sea
5. Caribbean Sea 12. Yellow Sea 19. Baltic Sea 26. Aegean Sea
6. Mediterranean Sea 13. Red Sea 20. Sea of Japan  
7. South China Sea 14. Gulf of Aden 21. Caspian Sea  




5. Using Echolocation
to Map the Atlantic Ocean Floor     15 Points
If the Atlantic Ocean did not have any water, what would the surface look like?  There would be mountains, canyons, and plains.  It would be as varied as the land now is. How can you find out what it looks like?   Before the 1920's the only way to measure the depth of the ocean was to use a weighted line with mesasurement marks.  They knew where deep water and shallow water was.  In the late 1920's, scientist developed an instrument called the Echo Sounder.   It records the time for a sound wave signal to travel from a ship to the ocean floor and back.  Sound travels through sea water at a speed of 1500 meters per second.  By using echolocation it was then easy to compute the depth of the ocean. The ocean depth is equal to the echo time x speed of sound (1500 meters per second).   By taking soundings at different points, calculating the ocean depth and then plotting the depths on a graph a cross-section of the Atlantic Ocean floor is created.

A. Draw a cross-section of underwater topography.
Use Cape Cod to Gibraltar Data found at:
http://www.smithlifescience.com/MappingSeaFloorDataCapeCodGibraltar.htm
Use graph paper found at: http://www.printfree.com/Office_forms/FormImages/Graph_paper3.gif
1 square = 100 Kilometers
1 square = 100 meters

 

B. Using the descriptions below label these features on your ocean floor map.

 

6. Ocean Zones     5 Points
Scientists have divided the ocean into 5 layers or zones.
Name them.


7. Life in The Ocean
     5 Points
Define these words and and name an animal that is found in each



8. Ocean Food Chain     2 Points
Draw an ocean food chain that includes phytoplankton.

     -->                         -->                         -->                         -->                         -->



 

9. How does the ocean get its salt?     2 Points

 

 

10. Grape Races     10 Points
One of the major concerns about climate change is the melting of the polar ice caps and the added freshwater that would be added to oceans.  Many scientists say the global ocean currents will change which will alter the climate.  The density of the water affects the current.  The amount of salt will affect the density.  Let's see how.

Materials
Grapes
Salt
Scale
250ml graduated cylinder
Stop watch
Spoon
Aluminum foil

Procedure
1. Fill the 250ml graduated cylinder with water.
2. Drop a grape and time how long it takes to hit the bottom.
3. Fill the graduated cylinder again and add 2.5 grams (10 ppt.) of salt.
4. Stir the salt until it is dissolved.
5. Drop the grape and record the time.
6. Continue adding 2.5 grams of salt and record the time it takes the grape to hit the bottom.
7. Graph you results looking for a pattern.

Questions
How might changing the salinity affect the living organisms there?


There are few diadromous fish ( fish that can tolerate both freshwater and saltwater. Name one.



11. Coral Reefs     5 Points
Tons of coral make up the coral reefs.  After the coral dies, it leaves its skeletons, made of calcium carbonate, behind. 
Describe the three different kinds of reefs:

 

12. Cnidarians Body Shape     5 Points
Cnidarians have 2 main body shapes: Polyp and Medusa.
Draw an example of each.
Label each example.







13. What is the difference between an octopus and a squid?     2 Points

 

14. Mollusks      2 Points
Name three mollusks used as food.

 

15.Thermal Vents    5 Points
Hydrothermal vents are geysers that form along mid-ocean ridges on the ocean floor in the deep sea.

 

 

 

16. In which part of the world are storms called:     2 Points

 

17. Hurricanes     5 Points
In what year did each of the following hurricanes take place?

 

18. When is the hurricane "season" in the United States?     1 Points


19. List and describe the 3 stages of the life cycle of a hurricane.      2 Points

20. Hurricane Tracking      10 Points
Track a hurricane on a Tracking Map using real data from an air force weather plane.
Use Hurricane Data found at:
http://www.smithlifescience.com/SciHurricaneData24106112007.htm
Use Hurricane Tracking map found at: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/AT_Track_chart2.pdf

Use green for Tropical Depressions
Use yellow for Tropical Storms
Use red for Hurricane-1
Use blue for Extra Tropical Storms-1
Use Orange for Extra Tropical Storms


21. Ocean Diorama     10 Points
Create your own ocean scene in a box. Find pictures of ocean animals like sharks, crabs, snails,and  reef fish. Add seaweed and coral. Paste, color, cut, hang them in a decorated box, and enjoy the ocean.

Materials
Pictures of ocean animals and plants
Shoe box
Crayons/ markers
Tape
Thread
Scissors
Pipe cleaners for sea weed and coral

Procedure
1. Decorate the inside of the box to look like it's underwater. Draw the water, the ocean floor, rocks, coral, seaweed, fish, an octopus, bubbles, scuba divers, a submarine, etc. Glitter makes a wonderful addition - just sprinkle some on a little glue.

2. Print out pictures of ocean animals to use.

3. Using crayons or markers, decorate the animals and plants. Also, draw and decorate your own seaweed, corals, and favorite fish. Green construction paper cut in squiggly strips makes nice seaweed.

4. Cut out the animals and plants.

5. Hang the fish and whales in the box using tape and thread. Tape your seaweed and coral to the bottom of the box. Green and brown pipe cleaners also make nice plants.





ONLINE RESOURCES
About Geysers found at:

http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~glennon/geysers/

Aquatic Diorama Patterns found at:
http://www.abcteach.com/aquatic/aquatic.htm

Commercial Fish Landing Statistics found at:
http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/st1/commercial/landings/monthly_landings.html

Coral Reefs Around the World found at:
http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00042/

Hurricane Checklist found at:
http://www.wcti12.com/hurricane_checklist.htm

Hurricane Tracking map found at:
http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/AT_Track_chart2.pdf

Hurricane Word List found at:
http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/CITE/hurricane_word_list.PDF

Ocean Careers found at:
http://www.oceancareers.com/2.0/index.php

Ocean Diorama found at:
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/Oceandiorama.shtml

Sea Floor Geology found at:
http://www.ocean.udel.edu/deepsea/level-1/geology/geology.html

Why is the Ocean Salty? found at:
http://www.palomar.edu/oceanography/salty_ocean.htm

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