Animal Behavior: Communication
Animal social behavior ranges from solitary to occasional
cooperation to societies with organized cooperation extending over generations; usually
Communication is Varied
- a. Communication is any action by a sender that influences
behavior of a receiver.
- b. When sender and receiver are same species, signals benefit
- c. Signals received by different species can cue defensive
- a. Works both night and day.
- b. Pheromones are chemical signals passed between members of
- c. Female moths secrete unique pheromone to attract males
that are downwind.
- d. Cheetahs and other cats mark territory by depositing
urine, feces, and anal gland secretions at boundaries.
- a. Faster than chemical communication.
- b. Can be sent and received in dark.
- c. Can be modified by loudness, pattern, duration, and
- d. Birds have various calls for courting, distress, marking
- e. Humpback whales have six basic songs.
- f. Language is ultimate auditory communication.
- i. Although chimpanzees can be taught to use artificial
language, they never progress beyond level of a two-year-old child.
- ii. Chimpanzees appear to mimic their teachers and not
understand cognitive use of a language.
- a. Mostly used by species active during daytime.
- b. Postures may prevent fighting that might result in reduced
- c. Male baboon displays establish dominance and keeps peace.
- d. Male bird plumage and courtship dances attract mates.
- a. Occurs when one animal touches another.
- b. Example: baby gulls peck at parent's beak for feeding.
- c. Grooming helps cement social bonds within a group of
- d. Waggle dance in bees gives tactile and auditory
information for distance and direction to a food source. (Fig. 31.9)
Outline Chapter 31 McGraw Hill